Biography of Nicholas Hilliard

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Timeline

In 1547 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 was born in Exeter, Devon.

In 1571 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 produced "a booke of portraitures" for Robert Dudley 1st Earl Leicester 1532-1588.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I.
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 became portrait painter to Elizabeth I.

Around 1574 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 invested in a gold mine in Scotland.The venture failed.Hilliard's life was best with money issues.

In 1576 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 travelled to France where he stayed with the English Ambassdor to France Amyas Poulett 1457-1538.

In 1576 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619, whilst in France, painted a portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 who was attached to the English Embassy at the time.

In 1576 Unknown Artist.After Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619.Portrait of Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587.

On 05 May 1576 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 was given the monopoly on producing miniatures and engravings of James VI King Scotland, I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1566-1625 by the King.

In 1577 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 was provided with a stipend of 200 livres by Francis Valois-Angoulême Duke Anjou 1555-1584, a suitor of Elizabeth I.

Around 1577 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Amyas Poulett 1457-1538.

In 1590 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Mary Sidney Countess Pembroke 1561-1621.

Around 1590 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619.Portrait of George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Francis Drake 1540-1596.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Francis Drake 1540-1596.

Around 1592 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Lettice Knollys Countess Essex 1543-1634.

In 1597 the poet John Donne praised Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 in his poem "The Storm": A hand or an eye, By Hilliard drawn is worth an history, By a worse painter made.

In 1599 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 secured an annual allowance from Elizabeth I of £40.

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 painted the portrait of James VI King Scotland, I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1566-1625.

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 wrote his treaty on painting called "The Art of Limning".

In Jul 1601 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 wrote to Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612, asking permission to retire from London and live more cheaply in the countryside.He explained that he had trained apprentices who now competed with him in the private painting market.Hilliard asked that Cecil employ his son as a clerk, because he could not keep him in his own trade.

In 1617 Elizabeth I gave Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 £400 for having made a second Great Seal.

In 1617 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 was briefly imprisoned in Ludgate Prison, Ludgate, Middlesex after standing surety for the debt of another, and being unable to produce the amount.

Around 03 Jan 1619 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 died

On 07 Jan 1619 Nicholas Hilliard 1547-1619 was buried in St Martin's in the Fields.In his will he left twenty shillings to the poor of the parish, thirty between his two sisters, some goods to his maidservant, and all the rest of his effects to his son, Lawrence Hilliard, his sole executor.