Biography of Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: /France/Families/Anjou_aka_Plantagenet[Paternal].html#Richard_3rd_Duke_York_Prince_Wales_1411-1460

Maternal Family Tree: /Ireland/Families/Aoife_NI_Diarmait_Macmurrough_Countess_Pembroke_Countess_Buckingham_1145-1188[MFT].html#Richard_3rd_Duke_York_Prince_Wales_1411-1460

Descendants Family Trees:

Edward "Longshanks" I King England

Edward III King England

Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 17 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 9 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg

Kings Powys: Great x 10 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great Grand Son of Edward III King England

Kings Scotland: Great x 9 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 7 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 3 Grand Son of Philip "Fair" IV King France

Timeline

On 21 Sep 1411 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 was born to Richard York 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 and Anne Mortimer Countess Cambridge 1390-1411

On 05 Aug 1415 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 succeeded 2nd Earl Cambridge (3C 1414)

On 18 Jan 1425 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 succeeded 8th Earl Ulster

On Oct 1429 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 were married. Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 by marriage Earl Cambridge (3C 1414) Earl Ulster.

In 1433 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 was appointed 148th Knight Garter: Henry VI

On 10 Aug 1439 Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 at Fotheringay Castle, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire

On 28 Apr 1442 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 at Rouen

On 17 May 1443 Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 at Rouen

On 22 Apr 1444 Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 at Rouen

Treaty of Tours

On 28 May 1444 the Treaty of Tours was concluded. The terms included the marriage of Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 and Margaret of Anjou in return for which England ceded the strategically important French County of Maine to France; she brought no dowry. The Treaty was negotiated by William de la Pole Duke of Suffolk. The cessation of Maine subsequently came as something of surprise to Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset who was its Governor. He, Somerset, was offered the Governorship of Normandy instead leading to a further rift between Somerset and Richard Duke of York who had already been offered Normandy. These seeds of the Wars of the Roses were falling on fertile ground.

On 18 Mar 1445 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 met Margaret of Anjou at Pontoise on his mission to bring her back to Endland for her marriage to Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471.

On 20 Oct 1445 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 returned to England at the end of his five-year appointment in France.

On 03 May 1446 Margaret of Burgundy 1446-1503 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 at Fotheringay Castle, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire

On 30 Jul 1447 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 was appointed as Lieutenant Ireland

On 30 Jul 1447 Richard Duke of York was appointed Lieutenant Ireland. An attempt by the Council to isolate Richard..

On 21 Oct 1449 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 at Dublin Castle, Dublin, County Dublin

On 07 Sep 1450 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 landed at Beaumaris, Anglesey, North-West Wales

On 27 Sep 1450 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 arrived at City of London

On 02 Oct 1452 Richard III King England 1452-1485 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 at Fotheringay Castle, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire

On Oct 1453 Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 was imprisoned by Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 at Tower of London, Tower Hill, City of London

On 27 Mar 1454 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 was appointed as Lord Protector

On Jan 1455 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 was restored 3rd Duke York (1C 1385). Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 by marriage Duke York (1C 1385).

First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460, Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 and Walter Strickland 1411-.
The Lancastrians Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455, Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland 1393-1455, William Cotton 1410-1455, Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455 and Richard Fortescue 1414-1455 were killed. Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham 1402-1460 was wounded and captured. Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471, John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 were captured. Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 both fought.

After 25 May 1455 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 was appointed as Constable England

On Nov 1455 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 was appointed as Lord Protector

Loveday

On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 presided at Westminster Abbey at a ceremony known as the " Loveday". John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460, Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471, Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464, Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460, Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland 1421-1461, Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.

Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludford Bridge, Ludlow, Shropshire.In the event a large number of the Calais garrison refused to fight against Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 who was present.The Yorkist leaders left overnight: Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460, the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483, Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460, Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 and John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham 1433-1501. Thomas Parr 1407-1464 was present.The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham 1402-1460 and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487.

Battle of Wakefield

On 11 Jun 1460 Parliament enacted attainders against the Yorkist supporters who fought, some of whom were killed, at the Battle of Wakefield including: Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460, Edward IV King England 1442-1483, Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471.

On 10 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 claimed the Kingdom of England in Westminster Hall witnessed by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486.

Act of Accord (39 Hen VI)

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord (39 Hen VI) by which Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 was declared heir to Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 disinheriting Edward Lancaster Prince Wales 1453-1471[Edward of Westminster at the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 was appointed as Prince Wales, Earl Chester, Duke Cornwall and Lord Protector.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle, Wakefield, Yorkshire.The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 and Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland 1421-1461, and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 and William Gascoigne 1430-1463, both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461, John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461, John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483.
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated. Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460, Thomas Neville 1430-1460, Thomas Harrington 1400-1460, William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed.Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 was executed. Thomas Parr 1407-1464 fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 was executed by John "Butcher" Clifford by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

After 30 Dec 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 was buried at Pontefract Priory, Pontefract, South Yorkshire, Yorkshire

On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father Edward of York, his father Richard of York and and his younger brother Edmund were reburied at St Mary and All Saints in Fotheringhay in a ceremony attended by Edward IV King England 1442-1483, George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478, Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501, William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483, Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 .

First Battle of St Albans

Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460, Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 and Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 were required by an Act of Parliament to pay for the burial and masses for those who died at the First Battle of St Albans

Ancestry

Father: Richard York 1st Earl Cambridge

GrandFather: Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York

Great GrandFather: Edward III King England

Great Great GrandFather: Edward II King England

Great Great GrandMother: Isabella Capet Queen Consort England

Great GrandMother: Philippa Hainault Queen Consort England

GrandMother: Isabella of Castile Duchess York

Mother: Anne Mortimer Countess Cambridge