1425-1449 Loire Campaign
Parliament Passes a Bill to Prevent Catherine of Valois Marrying
In 1428 Parliament Passes a Bill to Prevent Catherine of Valois Marrying without the consent of the King.The Bill appears to be in response to rumours that Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England and Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset were having an affair, and were planning to marry.
Siege of Orleans
On 12 Oct 1428 the Siege of Orleans commenced at Orleans.During the course of the siege Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche and Jean Poton Xaintrailles were wounded. William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk commanded the English forces during some of the siege.
Battle of the Herrings
On 12 Feb 1429 John Fastolf was at Rouvray leading a supply train of some 300 carts of crossbows, cannons, etc and also barrels of herrings to Orleans.A force of 400 strong Scottish cavalry led by Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon and John Stewart 1st Count Évreux attacked the supply train and were destroyed by English archers protected by supply wagons. John Stewart 1st Count Évreux was killed.
Joan of Arc meet Charles VII at Chinon
On 08 Mar 1429 Joan Arc met with Charles "Victorious" VII King France at Chinon Castle, Chinon.
Relief of Orleans
In 1429 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk commanded at Orleans during the Relief of Orleans
On 08 May 1429 Joan Arc relieved the Siege of Orleans.
Joan of Arc meet Charles VII at Loches
On 11 May 1429 following her success at Orleans Joan Arc met Charles "Victorious" VII King France at the Royal Lodge, Loches where she persuaded him to be crowned at Reims Cathedral; a somewhat perilous journey.
Battle of Jargeau
On 11 Jun 1429 Joan Arc and Jean Poton Xaintrailles fought at Jargeau, Loiret during the Battle of Jargeau. Alexander Pole was killed. William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk surrendered.
Battle of Meung-sur-Loire
On 15 Jun 1429 Joan Arc and Jean Poton Xaintrailles fought at Meung-sur-Loire, Loiret during the Battle of Meung-sur-Loire capturing the bridge over the Loire.
Battle of Beaugency
On 17 Jun 1429 Joan Arc and Jean Poton Xaintrailles fought at Loiret, Loiret during the Battle of Beaugency.
Battle of Patay
In 1429 Bernard Armagnac fought at Battle of Patay
On 18 Jun 1429 the Battle of Patay was the final engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years War.The French forces commanded by Joan Arc, Étienne Vignolles and Jean Poton Xaintrailles defeated an English force of 5000.The English lost around 2000 men with Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales, Thomas Rempston, and John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury being captured. John Fastolf fought.
Coronation of Charles VII
On 08 Mar 1429 Charles "Victorious" VII King France was crowned at Reims Cathedral, Reims with Joan Arc present.
English Coronation of Henry VI
On 06 Nov 1429 Henry VI King England was crowned VI King England: Plantagenet Lancaster by Cardinal Henry Beaufort at Westminster Abbey. Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick carried the child King. John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk attended. John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont was knighted.
Siege of Compiègne
On 23 May 1430 Joan Arc was captured during the Siege of Compiègne. John Luxembourg II Count Ligny commanded the rear-guard. Philip "Good" Valois-Burgundy III Duke Burgundy fought.
Birth of Edmund Tudor
On 11 Jun 1430 Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond was born to Owen Tudor and Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England at Much Hadham Palace (which belonged to the Bishops of London).There is speculation that the biological father was Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset with whom Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England was rumoured to have had an affair. Interesting, perhaps, that he was named Edmund rather than Owen.Interesting that he took the Royal Arms of England differenced.Also interesting that his younger brother was named Jasper; a Persian name meaning 'Keeper of the Treasure.'
Trial of Joan of Arc
On 09 Jan 1431 Joan Arc was tried at Rouen Castle, Rouen. John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford and Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick were present.
Execution of Joan of Arc
On 30 May 1431 Joan Arc was burned at the stake witnessed by Cardinal Henry Beaufort at Old Market Place, Rouen.
Siege of Louviers
On 03 Oct 1431 Thomas Beaufort Count Perche killed at Louviers, Eure, Haute Normandie during the Siege of Louviers.
French Coronation of Henry VI
On 16 Dec 1431 Henry VI King England was crowned II King France: Lancaster at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral. A somewhat futile exercise; the last gasps of the Hundred Years War.Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford was appointed Carver. Thomas Harrington, Hugh Courtenay 12th Earl Devon and his son Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon attended.
John Duke of Bedford marries Jacquetta Luxembourg
Battle of Gerberoy
On 09 May 1435 a French force commanded by Étienne Vignolles heavily defeated an English force commanded by John Fitzalan 14th Earl Arundel at the Battle of Gerberoy. John Fitzalan 14th Earl Arundel was killed. Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers fought.
Congress and Treaty of Arras
Douglas Black Dinner
On 24 Nov 1440 William Crichton arranged a dinner of reconciliation at the Great Hall, Edinburgh Castle.During the course of the dinner the young brothers William Douglas 3rd Duke Touraine and David Douglas was beheaded in front of the young James II King Scotland.
Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham
In 1441 Eleanor Cobham, wife of the heir presumptive Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester, brother of the deceased Henry V King England, uncle of Henry VI King England, was tried for predicting the future of the King; in reality a veiled attack on her husband who had over-reached himself. She had consulted two astrologers Thomas Southwell and Roger Bolingbroke.All three were arrested, tried and found guilty. Eleanor denied most of the charges but confessed to obtaining potions from Margery Jourdemayne, 'the Witch of Eye'.Thomas Southwell died whilst in the Tower of London.Roger Bolingbroke was hanged, drawn and quartered.Margery Jourdemayne was burned at the stake.Eleanor was sentenced to do public penance, divorce her husband and remain confined for the remainder of her life..
Treaty of Tours
On 28 May 1444 the Treaty of Tours was concluded. The terms included the marriage of Henry VI King England and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England in return for which England ceded the strategically important French County of Maine to France; she brought no dowry. The Treaty was negotiated by William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk. The cessation of Maine subsequently came as something of surprise to Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset who was its Governor. He, Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset, was offered the Governorship of Normandy instead leading to a further rift between Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset and Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales who had already been offered Normandy. These seeds of the Wars of the Roses were falling on fertile ground.
Battle of Arbroath
On 24 Jan 1445 the Battle of Arbroath was fought between Clan Lindsay and Clans Ogilvy, Gordon, Oliphant, Seton and Forbes. David Lindsay 3rd Earl Crawford was killed when attempting to prevent the battle by riding between the two armies in an attempt to call a truce.Unfortunately a member of the Clan Ogilvy, thinking the Earl was attacked threw his spear at the Earl, hitting him in the mouth, killing him instantly. Clan Lindsay victorious.
Richard of York meets Margaret of Anjou
On 18 Mar 1445 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales met Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England at Pontoise on his mission to bring her back to Endland for her marriage to Henry VI King England.
Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou
On 23 Apr 1445 Henry VI King England and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England were married at Titchfield Abbey.
Richard of York returns to England
On 20 Oct 1445 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales returned to England at the end of his five-year appointment in France.
Death of Humphrey of Lancaster
On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester died.He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke at Bury St Edmunds.He had been arrested three days previously on a charge of treason.
Richard York appointed Lieutenant of Ireland
On 30 Jul 1447 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales was appointed Lieutenant Ireland. An attempt by the Council to isolate Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales..
On 03 Jan 1448 Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick died at Ewelme aged four whilst in the care of Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk.After a prolonged legal dispute between her three half-aunts, and her full aunt, the courts decided her full aunt Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick should succeed; Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick succeeded as 16th Earl Warwick (1C 1088).Her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick became jure uxoris 16th Earl Warwick (1C 1088); the first step on his journey to becoming Kingmaker. The decision of the court was not subscribed to by Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset who was married to Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick half-sister Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset; he wanted his share of the considerable Beauchamp inheritance.
Battle of Sark
On 23 Oct 1448 Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde commanded at during the Battle of Sark inflicting a heavy defeat on the English forces. Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland and Thomas Harrington were captured. Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland escaped.
Battle of Formigny
On 15 Apr 1450 Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon and Arthur Montfort III Duke Brittany commanded at the Battle of Formigny at Formigny, Calvados, Basse Normandie at which Thomas Kyriell was captured.
Murder of William de la Pole
Before 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk exiled for five years for having lost the English possessions in Northern France including Anjou and Maine which were part of Margaret of Anjou's wedding settlement.
On 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk was beheaded at sea whilst travelling into exile his ship having been intercepted by the Nicholas of the Tower.
Jack Cade's Rebellion
On 04 Jul 1450 James Fiennes 1st Baron Saye and Sele and his son in law William Cromer were beheaded at Standard. Humphrey Stafford was killed at Sevenoaks. William Tresham was indicted for treason. Robert Poynings joined the rebellion.
Battle of Brechin
On 18 May 1452 the Battle of Brechin was fought between supporters of James II King Scotland and his rellious nobility including the Black Douglases. Alexander Gordon 1st Earl Huntley defeated the rebels led by Tiger Earl 4th Earl Crawford on behalf on the King. John Lindsay,and the brothers William Gordon and Henry Gordon, were killed.
Warwick becomes Kingmaker
On 28 Jul 1450 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick succeeded his mother as 6th Earl Salisbury (2C 1337), 8th Baron Montagu, 7th Baron Monthermer adding to the earldom of Warwick he had already acquired through his wife some two years previously.The combined earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury made Warwick the second most powerful man in the Kingdom making him Kingmaker.
Knighting at Greenwich
On 05 Jan 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, Thomas Neville, William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke, brothers Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond and Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford and Roger Lewkenor were knighted by Henry VI King England at Greenwich
Battle of Heworth Moor
On 24 May 1453 Thomas Neville and Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell were married. Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell was the niece and heiress of Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell meaning traditional Percy lands would become Neville lands.The Percy's, being the older family, especially Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont, took umbrage.. John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu was ambushed at Heworth Moor by Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont leading a force of 700+ men when returning with his brother's wedding party from Tattershall Castle to Sheriff Hutton.
Battle of Castillon
On 07 Jul 1453 the Battle of Castillon, the last battle of the Hundred Years War, was fought at Castillon. John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury and John Talbot 1st Viscount Lisle were killed. Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford and John Foix Earl Kendal were captured.
The 15th Century commenced with the Epiphany Rising; an attempt to restore Richard II King England to throne. Its failure resulted in Richard II King England death, as well as that of its leaders including Richard II King England half-brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter.
When Henry V King England succeeded in 1413 he re-started the Hundred Years War. The Battle of Agincourt the English apogee. Thereafter Joan of Arc's one-year campaign re-invigorated the French and saw the gradual decline of English possessions and influence, and its last battle, the Battle of Castillon, in 1453.
When the English stopped fighting the French they started fighting each other.
The Wars of the Roses started around 1450 and ended in 1485 at the Battle of Bosworth (arguably 1487 Battle of Stoke Field), and the subsequent succession to the English Crown of the Tudor Family. The traditional Lancaster vs York more acccurately a first war between the Lancaster and Beaufort fanmilies against the York and Neville families, and a second war between Lancaster and Neville families against York.
The first war of the Wars of the Roses from Jan 1460 to Mar 1461 saw the only remaining member of the House of Lancaster Henry VI King England supported by his legitmised cousins the Beauforts against the House of York supported by the Neville family, in particular, Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick and his brother John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu.
After Edward IV King England succeeded in 1461 the York and Neville families started fighting each other. Edward IV King England marriage to Elizabeth Woodville a catastrophe. Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick had been negotiating for Edward IV King England to marry a French Princess. The increasing influence of the Woodville family resulted in a corresponding descrease in the Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick influence. The second war of the Wars of the Roses from Mar 1470 to May 1471 saw Edward IV King England against an unlikely Lancaster-Neville alliance.
When Edward IV King England died in 1483 his youngest brother Richard III King England succeeded. Edward IV King England sons were barred from the succession as a consequence of their being illegitimate as a consequence of Edward IV King England having married previously. It all hinges whether you believe Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells was telling the truth when he told Richard III King England he conducted the earlier marriage. The middle brother George York 1st Duke Clarence son Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick was also barred from the succession as a result of his father's attainer. Richard III King England short reign of two years and two months ended at the Battle of Bosworth where the victorious Henry VII King England and Ireland succeeded to the English throne.
Henry VI's first Illness
In Aug 1453 Henry VI King EnglandCharles VI of France suffered a similar illness; his sobriquet "Mad".
Birth of Edward of Westminster
On 13 Oct 1453 Edward Lancaster Prince Wales was born to Henry VI King England and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England at Westminster Palace.When Henry VI King England recovered from his catatonic state, he greeted the child as a 'miracle'.There is some speculation as the child's actual father since Henry VI King England and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England had been married for eight years before the child was born. Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset was suggested at the time.