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Wars of the Roses

Wars of the Roses Part 1

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England

Wars of the Roses

Wars of the Roses Part 1

First War of the Wars of the Roses

The first war of the Wars of the Roses was a single battle and a local skirmish. The First Battle of St Albans (22 May 1455) at which a number of Lancastrian leaders lost their lives. And the Battle of Clyst Heath, 15 Dec 1455, Devon, at which the Courtenay family defeated the Bonville family, ostensibly Lancastrian and York respectively.

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First War of the Wars of the Roses

22 May 1455 First Battle of St Albans

A minor battle that had far reaching consequences. Few deaths, less than fifty, but three of which ware Lancastrian nobility: Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset, Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford and Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland. Their sons got their revenge at the Battle of Wakefield.

Henry VI King England, II King France was captured and subsequently taken to London. Richard York 3rd Duke York resumed power.

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England

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First War of the Wars of the Roses

First Battle of St Albans

York

Richard York 3rd Duke York [44]

Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury [27]

Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury [55]

Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham [40]

Walter Strickland [44]

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England

Wars of the Roses

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First War of the Wars of the Roses

First Battle of St Albans

Lancaster

Henry VI King England, II King France [34] captured

Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset [19] wounded

Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset [49] killed

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham [53] wounded and captured

James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde [35]

Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland [62] killed

John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock [55]

John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley [55] captured

Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford [41] killed

William Cotton killed

Edmund Dudley [30] captured

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First War of the Wars of the Roses

15 Dec 1455 Exeter: Battle of Clyst Heath

A local affair between the Courtenay and Bonville families who had been feuding during the general lawlessness of Henry VI's reign.

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First War of the Wars of the Roses

Battle of Clyst Heath

Lancaster-Courtenay

Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon [41]

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First War of the Wars of the Roses

Battle of Clyst Heath

York-Bonville

William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville [63]

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25 Apr 1457 Canterbury Cathedral: John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe

A significant marriage insofar as it exacerbated the Neville-Percy feud in northern England.

Thomas Bourchier [39] presided

John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu [26] Isabel Ingaldsthorpe

Isabel Ingaldsthorpe [16] attended

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24 Mar 1458 Westminster Abbey: Loveday

An attempt by Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou to bring together the various court factions. The resulting peace was short-lived.

Thomas Bourchier [40] presided

Margaret of Anjou Valois-anjou Queen Consort England [28] attended

Richard York 3rd Duke York [47] attended

Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset [22] attended

Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland [37] attended

Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury [30] attended

Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury [58] attended

Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont [36] attended

John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford [23] attended

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England

Wars of the Roses

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Second War of the Wars of the Roses

The second war of the Wars of the Roses comprised a battle and a battle that never took place. At the Battle of Blore Heath, 23 Sep 1459, Lancastrian James Tuchet Baron Audley’s attempted ambush on Yorkist John Neville Marquess Montagu failed, resulting in significant casualties on both sides. On 02 Oct 1459 at Ludford Bridge York and his supporters escaped rather than joined battle as a result of the unexpected defection of Warwick’s Calais garrison.

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23 Sep 1459 Market Drayton: Battle of Blore Heath

An ambush rather than a battle. James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire with 10,000 men lay in wait for Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury and his 5000 Yorkist men who were travelling from Middleham Castle to Ludlow to join the main Yorkist army. Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury formed his baggage train into a circle and proceeded to parley; unsuccessfully. Battle joined Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury feinted a retreat to draw the Lancastrian cavalry into boggy ground where they were vulnerable and suffered significant casualties. The Lancastrians attacked a second time during which James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire was killed. The Lancastrian second in command ordered a third attack that also failed as a result of some 500 Lancastrians changing sides. A rout commenced that continued throughout the night. Lancaster lost some 1000 men, York 1000.

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Battle of Blore Heath

York

John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu [28]

Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury [59]

John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock [59]

William Stanley Lord Chamberlain [24]

Walter Strickland [48]

John Savile

Roger Kynaston [26]

Thomas "Bastard Neville of Fauconberg" [30]

James Harrington [29] captured

Thomas Harrington [59]

John Conyers

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England

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Battle of Blore Heath

Lancaster

Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles [53]

James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire [61] killed by Roger Kynaston

John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley [59] wounded and captured

Edmund Dudley [34] captured

Peter Dutton killed

Thomas Dutton [38] killed

John Dutton killed

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12 Oct 1459 Battle of Ludford Bridge

The battle that never happened. Warwick's men from Calais refused to fight their King. Realising they were outnumbered Richard York 3rd Duke York and his second son Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland fled to Ireland whilst Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury and Edward IV King England, future King of England.

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England

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Battle of Ludford Bridge

Lancaster

Henry VI King England, II King France [38]

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham [57]

William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel [42]

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England

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Battle of Ludford Bridge

York

Edward IV King England [17] escaped

Richard York 3rd Duke York [48] escaped

Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland [16] escaped

Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury [31] escaped

Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury [59] escaped

John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham [26] escaped

Thomas Parr [52]

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09 Oct 1459 Coventry: Parliament of the Devils

John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu [28] attainted

Thomas Tresham [39] appointed Speaker of the House of Commons

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15 Jan 1460 Battle of Sandwich

An ambush rather than a battle insofar as Richard Woodville was surprised in his bed and captured, along with his family. Warwick captured several Lancastrian ships and took them to Calais enabling their later capture of Sandwich in Jun 1460. Woodville, too, was taken to Calais to be berated by his future son-in-law Edward IV for supporting the Lancastrian cause.

Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers [20] captured

Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers [55] captured

Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury [32]

John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham [27] commanded

Jacquetta Luxembourg [45] captured

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Wars of the Roses

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

The third war of the Wars of the Roses lasted nine months commencing June 1460 when Richard Neville Earl of Warwick left Calais, landed at Sandwich (Kent), raised an army, took over London and captured King Henry VI at the Battle of Northampton, July 1460.

Richard Duke of York returned from Ireland Sep 1460, claimed the throne unsuccessfully, and agreed to the Act of Accord, 25 Oct 1460, by which he and his successors were heirs to King Henry VI.

Queen Margaret, wife of King Henry VI, raised forces in the North, supported by Henry Beaufort Duke of Somerset. Richard Duke of York and Richard Neville Earl of Salisbury went north to suppress the rebels. Both Richard’s were killed at the Battle of Wakefield (30 Dec 1460).

The future King Edward IV won the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross 02 Feb 1461. Henry Beaufort, Duke Somerset, defeated Richard Neville Earl of Warwick at the Second Battle of St Albans 17 Feb 1461; King Henry VI was released.

London fearing the northern rebels proclaimed Edward IV King in London on 04 Mar 1461.

At the Battle of Towton, 29 Mar 1461, King Edward IV won an over-whelming victory securing his place on the throne.

The Lancastrian party, King Henry VI, Queen Margaret, their son Prince Edward, Henry Beaufort Duke Somerset and the remaining Lancastrian nobility escaped to Scotland.

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Jun 1460 Yorkist Raid on Sandwich

Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset was made Captain of Calais to wrest control of that strategic port that controlled the English Channel. To perform his function Somerset needed ships so the Lancastrians commenced building a fleet at Sandwich. Warwick had previously attacked Sandwich twice making off with ships.

b 26 Jun 1460 William Neville 1st Earl Kent [55] commanded

b 26 Jun 1460 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock [60] commanded

a Jun 1460 Osbert Mumford executed at Rysbank Tower

b 26 Jun 1460 Osbert Mumford captured

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10 Jul 1460 Battle of Northampton

Another battle that wasn't really a battle lasting only around thirty minutes before the Lancastrians surrendered. At the commencement of the battle Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent and his men lay down their arms, defecting to York as a result of a prior agreement with Edward IV King England, the soon to be King Edward IV. A number of significant Lancastrian nobles were killed attempting to protect the King: Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham, John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury, 2nd Earl Waterford, Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont and John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont.

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Battle of Northampton

York

Edward IV King England [18]

George Neville Archbishop York [28] present

William Neville 1st Earl Kent [55]

Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury [32]

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent [44]

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont [22] knighted

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton [23]

Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham [45]

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England

Wars of the Roses

Wars of the Roses Part 1

Third War of the Wars of the Roses

Battle of Northampton

Lancaster

Henry VI King England, II King France [39] captured

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham [58] killed

John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury, 2nd Earl Waterford [43] killed

John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont [51] killed

Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont [38] killed

Thomas Tresham [40]

William Norreys [19] knighted by Henry VI King England, II King France

Thomas "Bastard Holland of Exeter" executed

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

03 Aug 1460 Roxburgh Castle: Capture of Roxburgh

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

Capture of Roxburgh

Scotland

William Douglas 3rd Lord Drumlanrig [20]

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Capture of Roxburgh

England

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

10 Oct 1460 Westminster Hall: Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

Thomas Bourchier [42] witnessed

Richard York 3rd Duke York [49] claimed the Kingdom of England

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30 Dec 1460 Sandal Castle: Battle of Wakefield

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Battle of Wakefield

Lancaster

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter [30] commanded

James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde [40]

John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon [25] knighted

Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland [39] commanded the central battle

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley [33]

John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby [50]

John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford [25]

William Gascoigne [30] knighted by Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland

Thomas St Leger [20]

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England

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

Battle of Wakefield

York

Richard York 3rd Duke York [49] killed

Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland [17] murdered at Wakefield Bridge by John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford

Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury [60] beheaded by Thomas "Bastard Holland of Exeter"

William Bonville 6th Baron Harington [18] executed

Piers Legh [45] knighted

Thomas Parr [53]

Thomas Neville [29] killed

Thomas Harrington [60] killed

Edward Bourchier died

William Bonville [40] executed

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

02 Feb 1461 Wigmore: Battle of Mortimer's Cross

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Battle of Mortimer's Cross

York

Edward IV King England [19] at Mortimer's Cross

John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock [61]

John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire, 3rd Baron Tuchet [35]

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings [30] at Mortimer's Cross

Roger Vaughan of Tretower Court [51]

John VIII Savage [17]

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

Lancaster

Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford [30] at Mortimer's Cross

James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde [41] at Mortimer's Cross

Owen Tudor [61] captured at Mortimer's Cross by Roger Vaughan of Tretower Court

Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth [68] killed

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17 Feb 1461 Second Battle of St Albans

A victory for Lancaster after the Yorkists were betrayed. Notable for the death of John Grey of Groby, husband of Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England, whose subsequent marriage to Edward IV King England caused Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury to defect to Lancaster.

James Luttrell Baron Dunster [34] killed

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England

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

Second Battle of St Albans

Lancaster

Henry VI King England, II King France [40] rescued

John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk [46]

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter [31] commanded

17 Feb 1460 John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford [12] knighted

Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland [40]

Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles [33]

William Tailboys de jure 7th Baron Kyme [46] knighted

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley [34] knighted by Edward of Westminster Lancaster Prince Wales

Henry Grey 7th Baron Grey of Codnor [26]

Thomas Tresham [41] and was knighted

John Grey of Groby [29] killed

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England

Wars of the Roses

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

Second Battle of St Albans

York

John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu [30] captured

William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel [44]

Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury [33]

Henry Bourchier 1st Earl Essex [57]

John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock [61]

18 Feb 1461 William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville [69] executed after having protected Henry VI King England, II King France during the battle Margaret of Anjou Valois-anjou Queen Consort England reneged on his immunity and tried him and Thomas Kyriel in front of her seven year old son Prince Edward who ordered them top be beheaded.

Thomas Kyriell [65] executed

Robert Poynings [42] killed

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

04 Mar 1461 Proclamation of Edward IV as King

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings [30] present

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

Battle of Ferrybridge

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Battle of Ferrybridge

27 Mar 1461 Battle of Ferrybridge Part 1

The Battle of Ferrybridge commenced on the evening of 27 March 1461 when a small force of Yorkists led by John Radclyffe 9th Baron Fitzwalter over-whelmed a small force of Lancastrians who were defending the bridge. The Yorkists erected camp with a view to mending the broken bridge to allow the main Yorkist army to cross.

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York

28 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury [33]

28 Mar 1461 John Radclyffe [35] took the bridge

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Battle of Ferrybridge

Battle of Ferrybridge Part 1

Lancaster

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Battle of Ferrybridge

28 Mar 1461 Battle of Ferrybridge Part 2

On the morning of the 28 March 1461 the small Yorkist force left to protect and mend the bridge were ambushed by John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford and his Flower of Craven killing many including John Radclyffe 9th Baron Fitzwalter. Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury escaped back to the Yorkist camp. The Lancastrians spent the day securing the bridge.

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Battle of Ferrybridge

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Lancaster

John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby [51]

John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford [26]

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England

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Battle of Ferrybridge

Battle of Ferrybridge Part 2

York

Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury [33]

John Radclyffe [35] killed

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Battle of Ferrybridge

Battle of Ferrybridge Part 3

On the evening of the 28 March 1461 the main Yorkist force attempted to cross the bridge losing several thousand men in the process.

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Wars of the Roses

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

Battle of Ferrybridge

Battle of Ferrybridge Part 3

York

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Battle of Ferrybridge

Battle of Ferrybridge Part 3

Lancaster

John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford [26]

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Battle of Dintingdale

Having held of the Yorkist army John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford retreated to Dintingdale where a ford crossed the River Aire. Here he was ambushed and shot in the throat by an archer. His gorget (throat armour) having previously been removed the wound proved fatal.

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Battle of Dintingdale

York

William Neville 1st Earl Kent [56] at Ferrybridge

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Battle of Dintingdale

Lancaster

John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford [26] killed

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29 Mar 1461 Battle of Towton

The bloodiest battle on English soil (although Boudica's attack on St Albans is a candidate). The last battle of the first war of the Wars of the Roses. York triumphant. As is often the case more killed during the rout that followed the battle, with many drowning in Cock Beck which was said to run red with blood.

1461 Thomas Dethick [61] killed

Everard Simon Digby killed

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Battle of Towton

York

Edward IV King England [19]

John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk [46]

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter [31] commanded

William Neville 1st Earl Kent [56]

Henry Bourchier 1st Earl Essex [57]

John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock [61]

John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley [61]

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings [30] and knighted

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton [24] injured

Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy [45]

Edmund Dudley [36]

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England

Wars of the Roses

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Third War of the Wars of the Roses

Battle of Towton

Lancaster

John Morton [41] captured

John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde [12]

James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde [41]

Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon [29] captured

Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland [40] killed

Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers [56]

John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford [13]

03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon [29] beheaded at York

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont [23] captured

Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles [33]

Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles [55] killed

William Tailboys de jure 7th Baron Kyme [46] and escaped

John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby [51] killed

Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford [30]

Humphrey Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland [37]

Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland [49] killed

William Plumpton killed

Ralph Bigod [51] killed

John Beaumont [33] killed

Richard Percy [35] killed

Thomas Tresham [41] captured and suffered a forfeiture

William Norreys [20]

Thomas Grey

Ralph Eure [49] killed

Robert Cromwell [71] killed

John Bigod killed

Ralph Bigod [51] killed