1450-1459-Commencement of the Wars of the Roses
Battle of Formigny
On 15 Apr 1450 Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon 1401-1456 (49) and Arthur Montfort III Duke Brittany 1393-1458 (56) commanded at the Battle of Formigny at Formigny, Calvados, Basse Normandie at which Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (54) was captured.
Murder of William de la Pole
Before 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 exiled for five years for having lost the English possessions in Northern France including Anjou and Maine which were part of Margaret of Anjou's wedding settlement.
On 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (53) was beheaded at sea whilst travelling into exile his ship having been intercepted by the Nicholas of the Tower.
Jack Cade's Rebellion
On 04 Jul 1450 James Fiennes 1st Baron Saye and Sele 1395-1450 (55) and his son in law William Cromer 1416-1450 (34) were beheaded at Standard, Cheapside, City of London. Humphrey Stafford 1400-1450 (50) was killed at Sevenoaks, Kent. William Tresham -1450 was indicted for treason. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (31) joined the rebellion.
Battle of Brechin
On 18 May 1452 the Battle of Brechin was fought between supporters of James II King Scotland 1430-1460 (21) and his rellious nobility including the Black Douglases. Alexander Gordon 1st Earl Huntley -1470 defeated the rebels led by Tiger Earl 4th Earl Crawford 1423-1453 (29) on behalf on the King. John Lindsay 1423-1452 (29) ,and the brothers William Gordon -1452 and Henry Gordon -1452, were killed.
Knighting at Greenwich
On 05 Jan 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (22) , Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (22) , William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1423- (30) , brothers Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (22) and Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (21) and Roger Lewkenor were knighted by Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (31) at Greenwich, Kent during the Knighting at Greenwich
Battle of Castillon
In 07 Jul 1453 regarded as the last battle of the Hundred Years War the Battle of Castillon was fought at Castillon. John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury, 1st Earl Waterford 1383-1453 (70) and John Talbot 1st Viscount Lisle 1426-1453 (27) were killed. Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (22) and John Foix Earl Kendal 1410-1485 (43) were captured.
Battle of Heworth Moor
After 01 May 1453 Thomas Neville 1430-1460 and Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell, Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1497 were married. Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell, Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1497 was the niece and heiress of Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell 1403-1456 meaning traditional Percy lands would become Neville lands. The Percy's, being the older family, especially Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460, took umbrage.
On 24 Aug 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (22) was ambushed at Heworth Moor, York, Yorkshire by Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (30) leading a force of 700+ men when returning with his brother's wedding party from Tattershall Castle, Tattershall, Lincolnshire to Sheriff Hutton, Yorkshire.
Birth of Edward of Westminster
On 13 Oct 1453 Edward Lancaster Prince Wales 1453-1471 was born to Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (31) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (23) at Westminster Palace, Westminster. When Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (31) recovered from his catatonic state, he greeted the child as a 'miracle'. There is some speculation as the child's actual father since Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (31) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (23) had been married for many years before the child was born. Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (47) has been suggested.
Neville - Percy Battle
On 31 Oct 1454 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (23) and Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (23) captured Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (31) and Richard Percy 1426-1461 (28) at Stamford Bridge, East Riding, Yorkshire during the Neville - Percy Battle
Battle of Arkinholm
On 01 May 1455 the Douglas rebellion was brought to an end at the Battle of Arkinholm near Langholm, Scotland. Archibald Douglas 8th Earl Moray 1426-1455 (29) was killed. Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde -1455 was executed. John Douglas 1433-1463 (22) escaped.
First Battle of St Albans
On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced at the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 (43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (27) , Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (55) , Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (40) and Walter Strickland 1411- (44) .
The Lancastrians Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (49) , Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland 1393-1455 (62) , William Cotton 1410-1455 (45) , Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455 (41) and Richard Fortescue 1414-1455 (41) were killed. Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham 1402-1460 (52) was wounded and captured. Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (33) , John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (54) and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 (30) were captured. Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (55) fought.
11 Feb 1457. Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 (45) , Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 (45) and Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (57) were required by an Act of Parliament to pay for the burial and masses for those who died at the First Battle of St Albans:
Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455
Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland 1393-1455
Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455.
11 Feb 1457. Henry VI 1454-1461. Membrance 20d. Declaration of John the abbot of Saint Albone and the covent, that where the kynge by lettres patentes, yeven at Westminster 24 March, 36 Henry VI, awardede amonge other, for consideracions in the same declared, that within tow yeres by Richard (45) duke of Yorke, Richard (29) erle of Warrewyke and Richard (57) erle of Salesbury and by their charges ther bee yeven and amortessed to the monasterie, where the bodyes of Edmund late duke of Somerset, Henri late erle of Northumbrelonde and Thomas late lorde Clyfford slain in a metyng and encounteryng at Seint Albones been beryede, 45li of yerely lyvelode for masses, suﬁ‘ragies, obit and almouse for their soules and the soules of al other slayne there at that tyme, the same to be kept perpetually as shall be declared hereafter, and that the duke of York and erles of Warre wyk and Salisbury pay in every of the two yeres afore amortes ment 45li or the rate therof for thafferant of the tyme the mortesment shall remayne undoone, they have resoeived of the seide duke and erles 451i. for a hoole yere, and therof acquite them. Yeven 11 February, 37 Harry VI. Eng1ish.
Battle of Clyst Heath
On 15 Dec 1455 the Courtenay family, Earls of Devon since 1355, and Bonville family resolved their differences at the Battle of Clyst Heath. Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon 1414-1458 (41) defeated William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (63) .
John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe
On 25 Apr 1457 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (26) and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe 1441-1476 (16) were married by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (39) at Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent during the John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe
On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (40) presided at Westminster Abbey, Westminster during the Loveday. John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (22) , Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (58) , Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30) , Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (22) , Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 (46) , Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland 1421-1461 (36) , Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (35) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (28) attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.
Battle of Blore Heath
On 23 Sep 1459 John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (58) attempted to ambush John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (28) whilst he was travelling to Ludlow, Shropshire to join up with the main Yorkist army. Forewarned by scouts arranged his troops into battle order. The Yorkist army included John Conyers -1490, Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (59) , James Harrington 1430-1485 (29) , Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) , William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495 (24) , Roger Kynaston 1433-1495 (26) , John Savile, Walter Strickland 1411- (48) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (59) . The Lancastrian army included John Dutton -1459, Thomas Dutton 1421-1459 (38) and Peter Dutton -1459 who were killed. James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley Heighley 1398-1459 (61) was killed by Roger Kynaston 1433-1495 (26) . John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (58) and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 (34) were captured. Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (53) fought.
After 23 Sep 1459 James Harrington 1430-1485, John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 and Thomas Neville 1430-1460 were captured at Acton Bridge, Tarporley, Cheshire and imprisoned at Chester Castle, Chester, Cheshire having been detached from the main Yorkist force.
Battle of Ludford Bridge
On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludford Bridge, Ludlow, Shropshire. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison refused to fight against Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (37) who was present. The Yorkist leaders left overnight: Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460 (48) , the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (17) , Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (16) , Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31) , Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) and John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham 1433-1501 (26) . Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (52) was present. The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (41) .